Eczema (eg-zuh-MUH) is the name for a group of conditions that cause the skin to become red, itchy and inflamed.
Eczema is very common. In fact, more than 30 million Americans have some form of eczema.
Eczema is not contagious. You can’t “catch it” from someone else. While the exact cause of eczema is unknown, researchers do know that people who develop eczema do so because of a combination of genes and environmental triggers. When an irritant or an allergen “switches on” the immune system, skin cells don’t behave as they should causing an eczema flare-up.
There are eight different types of eczema that you should know about:
Neurodermatitis/Lichen simplex chronicus
Though there are eight distinct types of eczema, it is possible to have more than one type at a time.
All types of eczema cause itching and redness, but some may also cause your skin to blister, “weep,” or peel. The most common type, which can also be severe and long-lasting, is atopic dermatitis (AD).
It’s important to understand which type you or your child may have and also your symptoms and triggers, so that you can best treat and manage your eczema. But the only way to be sure that you or your child has eczema and which type, is to make an appointment with your doctor.
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Atopic dermatitis is a type eczema that is chronic and inflammatory. Though the exact cause of AD is unknown, it happens when the immune system goes into overdrive. AD usually begins in childhood, often in the first six months of the life. When you or your child have AD, it might improve at times or it may get worse (when you may experience what’s called a “flare up”).
AD is part of what’s called the atopic triad, which includes two other allergic conditions (asthma and hay fever, which is also known as allergic rhinitis). Researchers believe that people who come from families with a history of AD, asthma and/ or hay fever are more likely to develop atopic dermatitis themselves.
Some common symptoms of AD:
Dry, scaly skin
Cracks behind the ears
A rash on the cheeks, arms and legs
Open, crusted or “weepy” sores (usually during flare-ups)
Read more about AD symptoms, triggers and types of treatment.
Contact dermatitis happens when the skin touches irritating substances or allergens. These make the skin inflamed, causing it to burn, itch and become red. There are two kinds of contact dermatitis: irritant and allergic. Contact dermatitis usually appears on the hands, or parts of the body that touched the irritant/allergen.
The most common irritants include:
Skin care products that content alcohol (but not cetyl alcohol)
Some soaps and fragrances
Allergens (usually animal dander or pollens)
Symptoms of contact dermatitis include:
Redness and rash
Burning or swelling
Blisters that may weep or crust over
Read more about contact dermatitis symptoms, triggers and types of treatment.
Dyshidrotic eczema (dis-HI-drotic eg-zuh-MUH) is a condition that produces small, itchy blisters on the edges of the fingers, toes, palms, and soles of the feet. Stress, allergies (such as hay fever), moist hands and feet, or exposure to nickel (in metal-plated jewelry), cobalt (found in metal-plated objects, and in pigments used in paints and enamels), or chromium salts (used in the manufacturing of cement, mortar, leather, paints, and anticorrosives) may be “triggers” of dyshidrotic eczema. This type of eczema is twice as common in women as it is in men.
Symptoms of dyshidrotic eczema include:
Small fluid-filled blisters (vesicles) on the fingers, hands, and feet
Scaly, cracked skin
Read more about dyshidrotic eczema symptoms, triggers and types of treatment.
Hand eczema (also known as hand dermatitis) is very common — up to 10% of the population has this type of eczema. It is the result of both internal and external factors including genetics and contact with allergens or irritating substances like chemicals.
Some symptoms of hand eczema:
Dryness, to the point of peeling and flaking
Cracks in the skin
Read more about hand eczema symptoms, triggers and types of treatment.
Lichen simplex chronicus – neurodematitis
Lichen simplex chronicus (lie-KEN SIM-plex kronik-CUS) is an itchy skin disease that is similar to atopic dermatitis. People with lichen simplex chronicus tend to get thick, scaly patches on their skin as a result of too much rubbing and scratching of the area.
Some symptoms of lichen simplex chronicus:
Thick, scaly patches on the nape of the neck, scalp, shoulders, on the bottoms of feet, on ankles, wrists and the backs of the hands
Read more about lichen simplex chronicus symptoms, triggers and types of treatment.
Nummular eczema – nummular dermatitis
Nummular (numb-mu-LUR) eczema, also known as discoid eczema and nummular dermatitis, is a common type of eczema that can occur at any age. It looks very different than the usual eczema and can be much more difficult to treat. People with nummular eczema develop coin-shaped spots on their skin, which may be very itchy. It is thought to be “triggered” by things like insect bites, reactions to skin inflammation, or dry skin in the winter.
Some symptoms of nummular eczema include:
Round, coin-shaped spots
Dry, scaly skin
Wet, open sores
Read more about nummular eczema symptoms, triggers and types of treatment.
Considered a chronic form of eczema, seborrheic dermatitis (seb-uh-REE-ick dur-muh-TIE-tis) appears on the body where there are a lot of oil-producing (sebaceous) glands like the upper back, nose and scalp.
Seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp is called dandruff. Picture courtesy of DermNet New Zealand
The exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown, although genes and hormones play a role. Microorganisms such as yeast, that live on the skin naturally can also contribute to seborrheic dermatitis. Unlike many other forms of eczema, seborrheic dermatitis is not the result of an allergy.
People of any age can develop seborrheic dermatitis including infants (known as “cradle cap”). It is slightly more common in men than women.
People with certain diseases that affect the immune system, such as HIV or AIDS, and the nervous system, such as Parkinson’s disease, are believed to be at an increased risk of developing seborrheic dermatitis.
Seborrheic dermatitis often appears on the scalp, where symptoms may range from dry flakes (dandruff) to yellow, greasy scales with reddened skin. Patients can also develop seborrheic dermatitis on other oily areas of their body, such as the face, upper chest and back.
Stasis dermatitis is sometimes called venous stasis dermatitis because it usually happens when there is a problem with blood flow in the veins and pressure develops (usually in the lower legs). This pressure can cause fluid to leak out of the veins and into the skin, resulting in stasis dermatitis.
Symptoms of stasis dermatitis include:
Swelling around the ankles
And in more severe cases:
Open areas (cracking or larger ulcers)
Read more about stasis dermatitis symptoms, triggers and types of treatment.
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