Atopic dermatitis (also known as AD) is the most common type of eczema. In fact, 17.8 million Americans have AD — which often appears as a red, itchy rash normally on the cheeks, arms and legs.
Atopic dermatitis exists with two other allergic conditions: asthma and hay fever (allergic rhinitis). People who have asthma and/or hay fever or who have family members who do, are more likely to develop AD.
AD typically begins in childhood, usually in the first six months of a baby’s life. Even though it’s the most common form of eczema, it’s also the most severe and long-lasting. When you or your child have AD, it may improve at times, but at others it may get worse or flare up. Often, AD disappears as a child grows older, though some children will continue to experience atopic dermatitis into adulthood.
How did I develop atopic dermatitis?
We don’t know the exact cause of atopic dermatitis. Researchers do know that a combination of genetics and environmental factors are involved. When something from outside the body triggers the immune system, the skin cells don’t behave like they should, causing the skin to flare up.
We also know that AD runs in families, but we don’t know the exact way it is passed from parents to children. If one parent has AD, asthma, or hay fever, there’s about a 50% chance that their child will have at least one of these diseases. If both parents have one or more of these conditions, the chances are much greater that their child will, too.
An estimated 10% of all people worldwide are affected by atopic dermatitis at some point in their life. The condition seems to be more common in urban areas and developed countries and affects men and women of all races equally. Either way, AD is not contagious. You or your child cannot “catch” it from another person, or give it to someone else.
Itching for relief?
If you scratch too much, it could cause your atopic dermatitis to flare up
Get tips on managing the itch — like keeping your hands busy with other activities so you’re less likely to scratch
Understand which allergens and substances can further irritate your atopic dermatitis
Learn more about the best fabrics to wear that won’t irritate your skin
Explore simple changes you can make in your daily life to help your symptoms
Sign up to learn how to stop the “itch-scratch cycle”
And you’ll also get the NEA digital guide to atopic dermatitis
What’s the difference between eczema and atopic dermatitis?
Atopic dermatitis is considered a more severe type of eczema. People with AD may experience a number of different sensitivities for the rest of their lives:
Dry skin that becomes easily irritated
Occupational skin diseases like hand dermatitis
Skin infections like “staph” and herpes
Eye problems like eyelid dermatitis or cataracts
There are other types of eczema that cause itching and redness, but some will also cause your skin to blister, “weep,” or peel. It’s important to understand which of the eight types of eczema you or your child may have, so that you can better treat and manage it. The only way to be sure that you or your child has this condition is to make an appointment with your doctor.
Learn more about all eight types of eczema and their symptoms and triggers.
What does AD look like?
Unlike other kinds of eczema, atopic dermatitis does not usually go away in a few days or weeks. It might get better or worse but the AD symptoms typically return.
AD is very itchy. You or your child’s skin can become damaged from repeated scratching or rubbing. AD normally appears on the cheeks, arms and legs, but can be anywhere on the body.
Symptoms of AD include:
Dry, scaly skin
Cracks behind the ears
A rash on the cheeks, arms and/or legs
Open, crusted or “weepy” sores (usually during flare-ups)
Are there things that can make my atopic dermatitis worse?
The key to staying healthy while living with atopic dermatitis is to manage your symptoms. That’s why it’s good to know about the everyday triggers in your surroundings that might make your AD flare up.
Some of the most common atopic dermatitis triggers:
Dry skin — which can easily become brittle, scaly, rough, and tight
Irritants — everyday products or substances (hand and dish soap, laundry detergent, shampoo, bubble bath and body wash, or surface cleaners and disinfectants) that can cause your skin to burn and itch, or become dry and red
Stress — emotional stress can cause a person’s AD to flare up and get worse
Hot/cold temps and sweating — can lead to itchy skin or “prickly heat” symptoms from the heat and/or sweating and very dry skin can develop during the cold winter months
Infection — from bacteria and viruses that live in your environment (like “staph,” herpes, or certain types of fungi)
Allergens — everyday materials in the environment like seasonal pollen, dust mites, pet dander and mold
Hormones — flare ups may happen, especially in women, when certain hormones in the body increase or decrease
Learn more about the most common causes and triggers of AD.
How can I control my atopic dermatitis?
There are a number of things you can do to manage your atopic dermatitis. The most important thing is to be consistent with your skin care. Setting up a daily routine is important for you or your child so that you are able to live more comfortably with AD.
Some things you can do to help control your atopic dermatitis:
Establish a daily skin care routine just like you would for other activities such as brushing your teeth. Be sure not to miss treatments and adapt your routine to address any changes in your AD.
Recognize stressful situations and events and learn to avoid or cope with them by using techniques for stress management. You may do this on your own, or with the help of your doctor or psychologist.
Be mindful of scratching and rubbing and limit contact with materials or substances that may irritate your skin. Dress in soft, breathable clothing and avoid itchy fabrics like wool that can irritate your skin.
Learn more about how to control and treat your AD.